SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

 

 

 

 

-> OPERATORS/LOCATION

 

The scientific programme of 3D Build 2020 will be operated by two most esteemed research centres respectively in the fields of architecture and engineering: the Design, History, Territory and Materiality Laboratory (LACTH) and the Materials & Processes Research and Innovation Centre (CERI MP) of the IMTLD.

 

The robotic equipment for 3D printing will be provided by Polytech Lille (the Engineering School of the University of Lille* and a founding member of the first French network of engineering schools, the Polytech Group).

*In the top 100 European most innovative universities of the Times Higher Education ranking.

 

The CERI MP is part of multiple scientific collaborations with Chinese partners (works on the development of formulation for construction materials), specifically with the Universities of Hohai and Wuhan (School of Civil Engineering). Also, scientific collaborations have been carried out since 2018 with the Department of Hydraulic Engineering of Tsinghua University (MOU, using digital modelling implementing High Performance GPU calculations and applied to civil engineering and 3D printing).

 

These partnerships have led to hosting invited professors and to supervising PhD students; they will benefit the 3D Build 2020 Summer School.

 

 

-> CONTENT OUTLINE

 

Focusing on the innovative and fundamental aspects of additive manufacturing for construction, 3D Build 2020 will be run as a top scientific workshop offering lectures and seminars, meetings with leading researchers in the field, demonstrations of cutting-edge equipment, as well as an introduction to research through a supervised project. The quality of the work undertaken and your scientific potential will be assessed.

 

Particular emphasis will be made on design and 3D-printing for construction in a transdisciplinary approach. You will be coached to design complex geometries for urban or periurban furniture and led to take into account their territorial integration by adapting the morphology to the urban space and uses. The designed result will be printed out by an automated process with printable materials that you will be taught to formulate.

 

Half of the schedule will be devoted to the 60-hour scientific programme taught in English.

 

   7.5h / LECTURES
   1.5h / CONFERENCE
    51h / SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PROJECT
              1. SEMINARS (31h)
              2. 3D PRINTING SESSIONS (14h)
              3. RESTITUTION (6h)

 

Keywords: Additive Manufacturing, Robotic Fabrication, Complex Surfaces, Mixture Proportioning, Ecological Materials, Parametric Design, Urban Design.

 

 

-> TEACHING TEAM

 

  • Dr. Eliane KHOURY, PhD in Civil Engineering, researcher at IMTLD, specialised in characterisation and valorisation of recycled concrete aggregates in new concretes and on concrete 3D print (C1-C3)
  • Dr. Othman LAKHAL, PhD in Robotics, specialised in robotic systems for 3D printing applications (C3)
  • Dr. Mohammad MANSOURI, PhD in Architecture, specialised in relationships between parametric modelling and fabrication (C2-C3)
  • Prof. Antonella MASTRORILLI, Full Professor at ENSAPL, PhD in Sciences and Techniques of Architecture, specialised in relationships between Architecture, Sciences and new Technologies (coordinator of the scientific programme, C2-C3)
  • Prof. Rochdi MERZOUKI, Full Professor at Polytech Lille, PhD in Robotics, specialised in robotic systems and mechatronics robots (C3)

 

 

-> LECTURES

 

The teaching programme of 3D Build 2020 will provide theoretical inputs on the following topics:

 

C1: Mixture Proportioning and Characterisation of Printable Mortars
Concrete: an Overview (main components of concrete, mixture proportioning); Rheology of Concentrated Suspensions at a Glance (definitions, main rheological behaviours, measuring a rheological behaviour); Additive Manufacturing of Cementitious Materials (specifications, rheological properties and printing parameters, rheological properties and shape, mixture proportioning of printable mortars).

 

C1: Mixture Proportioning and Characterisation of Eco-Compatible Printable Mortars
Printable Mortar – an Environmental Friendly Material (saving matter, a high binder content, LCA balance); Binders of Substitution (use of mineral admixtures, low carbon binders, chemical admixtures – a special role); Modifying and Optimising the Granular Skeleton (the importance of being large, use of recycled aggregates).

 

C2: Introduction to Additive Manufacturing for Construction
The AM Technology for Large Scale Prototypes; the State-of-the-Art and the Relevant Progress and Processes in Additive Manufacturing for Construction; the 3D Build 2020 Scientific Research Project.

 

C2: Introduction to Parametric Design and Digital Fabrication
Principles of Parametric Design; Generation of New Designs for Large Scale Additive Manufacturing; a Form Finding Approach to Complex Shapes.

 

C3: Introduction to Robotics
Initiation to Robotics in Architecture; Interaction between Robot and Architecture; Robotic-Aided Manufacturing.

 

 

-> SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PROJECT

 

Designed to facilitate your admission to Doctoral programmes in France, the Scientific Research Project will require both personal and teamwork with the help of theoretical and practical teachings. The project will involve methodological courses and mini-lectures, and at the end of 3D Build 2020, you will be able to set up a research problem, draft a state-of-the-art and write a bibliography on a topic that will emerge from your work. Each student will participate in the printing of a prototype, and the assessment will cover the whole process from design to printing leading to a final project defence in front of the scientific board.

 

The best creations will be printed and exhibited in the halls of the Gare Saint-Sauveur (Lille 3000 Association) major cultural space of Lille, as part of the major international event “Lille Metropole 2020, World Design Capital”.

 

1. Seminars

 

C1: Formulation (Civil Engineering). Composition of a Printable Mortar: Choice of Materials, Characterisation and Design of an Ecological Printable Mortar for Given Specifications.

C2: Conception (Architecture). Design Session: Parametric Design of Complex Shapes for Additive Manufacturing.

 

2. 3D Printing Sessions (C3)

 

Preparation of Materials, Mixing, Pumping, Printing of the Shapes. The printing will be made with a mobile robot provided by Polytech Lille.

 

3. Restitution

 

Presentation of the designed shape/mortar; Printing of the selected projects; Production of a poster documenting the whole process. During the conception phase, each student will have to identify and formulate a research problem that will also be assessed.

 

You will have every opportunity to contact teachers/researchers with a view to supervision of a future PhD programme; assistance will be provided in maintaining contact in order to finalise the project up to enrolment in the doctoral programme.

 

 

-> CONFERENCE

 

Scientific Research Clusters and Economic Hubs in Hauts-de-France (Northern France Region)
Transverse conference correlated to the domains of France Excellence Summer Schools students and coordinated by competent clusters and hubs.

 

 

-> LITERATURE

 

Literature in Architecture

 

- 1. I. Agustí-Juan and G. Habert. Environmental Design Guidelines for Digital Fabrication. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142:2780–2791, 2017.

- 2. H. Bier. Robotic Building, Springer International Publishing, 2018.

- 3. S. Bhooshan, T. Van Mele, and P. Block. Equilibrium-Aware Shape Design for Concrete Printing. Humanizing Digital Reality, pages 493–508, 2017.

- 4. F. Bos, R. Wolfs, Z. Ahmed, and T. Salet. Additive Manufacturing of Concrete in Construction: Potentials and Challenges of 3D Concrete Printing. Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 2759(October):1–17, 2016.

- 5. F. Bos, R. Wolfs, Z. Ahmed, and T. Salet. First RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication – Digital Concrete 2018, volume 19. Springer International Publishing, 2019.

- 6. H. Brooks. A Review of State-of-the-Art Large-Sized Foam Cutting Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing Technologies. Rapid Prototyping Journal, 16(5):318–327, 2010.

- 7. R. A. Buswell, R. C. Soar, A. G. F. Gibb, and A. Thorpe. Freeform Construction: Megascale Rapid Manufacturing for Construction. Automation in Construction, 16(2):224–231, 2007.

- 8. C. B. Costanzi, Z. Y. Ahmed, H. R. Schipper, F. P. Bos, U. Knaack, and R. J. M. Wolfs. Automation in Construction 3D Printing Concrete on Temporary Surfaces: The Design and Fabrication of a Concrete Shell Structure. Automation in Construction, 94(August 2017):395–404, 2018.

- 9. T. Craipeau, T. Lecompte, F. Toussaint, and A. Perrot. First RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication – Digital Concrete 2018, volume 19. Springer International Publishing, 2019.

- 10. F. Hamidi, F. Aslani. Additive Manufacturing of Cementitious Composites: Materials, Methods, Potentials, and Challenges in Construction and Building Materials. Elsevier, 2019.

- 11. Huang, S.H., Liu, P., Mokasdar, A. et al. Int J Adv Manuf Technol, 2013. 67: 1191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-012-4558-5.

- 12. IAAC, Small Robots Printing Big Structures, Minibuilder by IAAC, 2014. http://iaac.net/printingrobots.

- 13. A. Jakupovic. Mini Builders Project - Report, IAAC.

- 14. B. Khoshnevis. Automated Construction of Towers and Columns. 1, 2018.

- 15. E. Lloret, A. R. Shahab, M. Linus, R. J. Flatt, F. Gramazio, M. Kohler, and S. Langenberg. Complex Concrete Structures: Merging Existing Casting Techniques with Digital Fabrication. CAD Computer Aided Design, 60:40–49, 2015.

- 16. R. Mathur. 3D Printing in Architecture. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, Vol. 3 Issue 7, 2016, ISSN 2348 – 7968.

- 17. B. Panda, N. Ahamed, N. Mohamed, Y. Wei, D. Tay, and M. J. Tan. First RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication – Digital Concrete 2018, volume 19. Springer International Publishing, 2019.

- 18. J. Pegna. Application of Cementitious Bulk Materials to Site Processed Freeform Construction. 6th Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) Symposium, pages 39–45, 1995.

- 19. J. Pegna. Exploratory Investigation of Solid Freeform Construction. Automation in Construction, 5(5):427–437, 1997.

- 20. M. Popescu, M. Rippmann, T. V. Mele, and P. Block. Automated Generation of Knit Patterns for Non-Developable Surfaces (Aboumain 2010), 2017.

- 21. L. Reiter, T. Wangler, N. Roussel, and R. J. Flatt. The Role of Early Age Structural Buildup in Digital Fabrication with Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 112(May):86–95, 2018.

- 22. F. Scotto, F. Gramazio, and M. Kohler. First RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication – Digital Concrete 2018. 19:299–310, 2019.

- 23. A. Szabo, L. Reiter, and E. Lloret-Fritschi. First RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication – Digital Concrete 2018, volume 19. Springer International Publishing, 2019.

- 24. Teymouri. Potentialities and Restrictions of Construction 3D Printing. Bachelor Thesis. Karelia University of Applied Sciences, 2017.

- 25. T. Wangler and R. J. Flatt. Correction to: First RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication – Digital Concrete 2018. Springer International Publishing, 2018.

- 26. P. Wu, J. Wang, and X. Wang. A Critical Review of the Use of 3-D Printing in the Construction Industry. Automation in Construction, 68:21–31, 2016.

- 27. X. Zhang, M. Li, J. H. Lim, Y. Weng, Y. W. D. Tay, H. Pham, and Q. C. Pham. Large-Scale 3D Printing by a Team of Mobile Robots. Automation in Construction, 95(August):98–106, 2018.

 

 

Literature in Civil Engineering

 

- 1. N. Roussel, M. R. Geiker, F. Dufour, L. N. Thrane, and P. Szabo. Computational Modeling of Concrete Flow: General Overview. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 1298–1307, 2007.

- 2. A. Perrot, T. Lecompte, H. Kheli, C. Brumaud, J. Hot, and N. Roussel. Cement and Concrete Research Yield stress and Bleeding of Fresh Cement Pastes. vol. 42, pp. 937–944, 2012.

- 3. N. Khalil, G. Aouad, K. El Cheikh, and S. Rémond. Use of calcium sulfoaluminate cements for setting control of 3D-printing mortars. Construction and Building Materials, vol. 157, pp. 382–391, Dec. 2017.

- 4. K. El Cheikh, S. Rémond, N. Khalil, and G. Aouad. Numerical and Experimental Studies of Aggregate Blocking in Mortar Extrusion. Construction and Building Materials, vol. 145, pp. 452–463, 2017.

- 5. D. Lootens, P. Jousset, L. Martinie, N. Roussel, and R. J. Flatt. Cement and Concrete Research Yield Stress During Setting of Cement Pastes from Penetration Tests. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 401–408, 2009.

- 6. N. Roussel. Correlation Between Yield Stress and Slump?: Comparison Between Numerical Simulations and Concrete Rheometers Results. pp. 501–509, 2006.

- 7. D. Marchon, S. Kawashima, H. Bessaies-bey, S. Mantellato, and S. Ng. Cement and Concrete Research Hydration and Rheology Control of Concrete for Digital Fabrication?: Potential Admixtures and Cement Chemistry. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 112, no. May, pp. 96–110, 2018.

- 8. R. J. M. Wolfs, F. P. Bos, and T. A. M. Salet. Cement and Concrete Research Early Age Mechanical Behaviour of 3D Printed Concrete?: Numerical Modelling and Experimental Testing. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 106, no. February, pp. 103–116, 2018.

- 9. T. Wangler, E. Lloret, L. Reiter, N. Hack, F. Gramazio, and M. Kohler. Digital Concrete?: Opportunities and Challenges. pp. 67–75, 2016.

- 10. R. A. Buswell, W. R. L. De Silva, S. Z. Jones, and J. Dirrenberger. Cement and Concrete Research 3D Printing Using Concrete Extrusion?: A Roadmap for Research. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 112, no. May, pp. 37–49, 2018.

- 11. N. Roussel. Cement and Concrete Research Rheological Requirements for Printable Concretes. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 112, no. May, pp. 76–85, 2018.

- 12. L. Reiter, T. Wangler, N. Roussel, and R. J. Flatt. Cement and Concrete Research, The Role of Early Age Structural Build-Up in Digital Fabrication with Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 112, no. May, pp. 86–95, 2018.

- 13. T. Lecompte, A. Perrot, V. Picandet, and H. Bellegou. Cement and Concrete Research Cement-Based Mixes?: Shearing Properties and Pore Pressure, vol. 42, pp. 139–147, 2012.

- 14. I. Hager, A. Golonka, R. Putanowicz. 3D Printing of Buildings and Building Components as the Future of Sustainable Construction?. Procedia Engineering, 151, 292–299, 2016.

- 15. T. Le, J. Webster, R. Buswell, S. Austin, A. Gibb, T. Thorpe. Fabricating Construction Components Using Layered Manufacturing Technology. Glob. Innov. Constr. Conf., Loughborough University, pp. 13–16, 2009

- 16. Z. Malaeb, H. Hachem, A. Tourbah, T. Maalouf, N. El Zarwi, F. Hamzeh. 3D Concrete Printing: Machine and Mix Design 3D Concrete Printing: Machine and Mix Design, no. October 2016, 2015.

- 17. T.T. Le, S.A. Austin, S. Lim, R.A. Buswell, A. G. F. GibbT., and T. Thorpe. Mix Design and Fresh Properties for High-Performance Printing Concrete. Materials and Structures. 45 (8) (2012) 1221–1232.

- 18. P. Wu, J. Wang, X. Wang. A Critical Review of the Use of 3D Printing in the Construction Industry. Automation in Construction, 68, 21–31, 2016.

- 19. A. Perrot, C. Lanos, Y. Mélinge, P. Estellé. Mortar Physical Properties Evolution in Extrusion Flow. Rheol. Acta 46, 1065–1073, 2007.

- 20. H. Lipson, M. Kurman. Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing, John Wiley & Sons. 2013.

- 21. Print me a Stradivarius: How a New Manufacturing Technology Will Change the World. The Economist, Print Edition. Feb 12th 2011.

- 22. M. Jolin, D. Burns, B. Bissonnette, F. Gagnon, L.S. Bolduc. Understanding the Pumpability of Concrete, in: Proceedings Shotcrete for Underground Support XI, Engineering Conferences International, 2009.

- 23. V.H. Nguyen, S. Rémond, J.L. Gallias. Influence of Cement Grouts Composition on the Rheological Behavior. Cement and Concrete Research, 41, 292–300, 2011.

- 24. B. Panda, S. C. Paul, L. J. Hui, Y. W. D. Tay, M. J. Tan. Additive Manufacturing of Geopolymer for Sustainable Built Environment. Journal of Cleaner Production 167, 281-288, 2017.

- 25. B. Panda, M. J. Tan. Material Properties of 3D Printable High-Volume Slag Cement. 1st International Conference on 3D Printing (3DcP), 2018.

- 26. B. Panda, M. J. Tan. Experimental Study on Mix Proportion and Fresh Properties of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer for 3D Concrete Printing. Ceramics International 44, 10258-10265, 2018.

 

NB: Minor modifications may occur in the programme.